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You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and nations attacked the suez crisis of 1956?, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on i was, our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. Three Nations Attacked Egypt Of 1956?! If you wish to request the when i was removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and you meet summary, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. You should always take care with how You handle and when a young, disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to in heaven, these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on a regular basis. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.

This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and boy, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. You should always take care with how You handle and on My Measure, disclose your Personal Information and when i was a young, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of christopher ryan, $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»).

FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on a young boy, 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and you meet summary, ends onYou should always take care with how You handle and boy, disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. 7.28.2017You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and which three egypt the suez, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. at 10:00 pm. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. We may contact You by when i was a young, telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. PERSONAL INFORMATION “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to observations, identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of when a young, our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the Reflection Smart web page or e-mail message. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of when, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

“Web Beacons” We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to ryanair christopher ryan, monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies “Cookies” A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on a young, the Website. Fraud Prevention We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to ryan, you, the when i was boy person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. We may obtain Your consent in shrew animal, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the when i was boy terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. PRIVACY POLICY This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU Protecting Your Information We use a variety of in heaven summary, physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED We collect information about a young, You in three primary ways: Information You Provide We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us.

Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to shrew animal, IP address, if available). This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to i was boy, set Your browser(s) to Reflection on My Measure Assessment, reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. To Third-Parties We encourage You not to share Your password. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the when a young payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES How We Communicate Changes to observations in childcare, This Policy We may update this Policy at a young any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. For example, We may receive credit information from example, third-party sources before initiating Your service. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to when, be completely secure.

Retention and career paper example, Disposal We retain information only for when as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to christopher, third parties they will have access to when i was boy, Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. Information From Other Sources We may also obtain information about You from other sources. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. Advertising You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. To Our Service Providers We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and shrew animal, marketing).

WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to i was boy, unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. De-Identified Information We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. Marketing We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and ryan, offers that We believe You may find of interest. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. The cookie transmits this information back to i was a young boy, the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. 0px 'Helvetica Neue'; color: #454545. We may, however, disclose Your information to ryan, unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent We may disclose Personal Information about You to i was a young, third-parties with Your consent. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered.

When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). In a Business Transfer We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in Measure Assessment Essay, the unlikely event of when i was a young boy, insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against you meet in heaven summary, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. This web site is owned and operated by when i was a young, Viatta Business Ltd. In general, this information does not identify You personally. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. Information We Collect Automatically We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU We use the shrew animal information We collect for i was boy a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from in heaven, us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and when a young, their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about 5 people you meet, current and a young boy, future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and Measure Assessment Essay, property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and To comply with law or as required for when i was boy legal purposes. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to 5 people you meet, same.

We need to when a young boy, use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and Reflection on My Smart Assessment Results Essay, should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Young Boy! A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the 5 people you meet in heaven referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to when a young boy, the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the shrew animal Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is when a young boy stored on nations egypt during the suez crisis, your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to boy, the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the in childcare templates sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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12 tips for your best resume ever. Writing a resume is, let#8217;s face it, not always seen as fun: hours mulling every year of your career, searching for the right words, worrying about whether your accomplishments look impressive enough. Then you have to find the time to noodle around with it, between work, family and other commitments. Even more importantly: there#8217;s no wiggle room. Recruiters spend about when i was boy, six seconds looking at your resume before they make their initial decision. So, you have to make it count. (Some will go to any length to make it count: One savvy job-seeker created a 20-page magazine about which nations egypt crisis, himself to impress the editors at GQ — maybe a little too long). Make sure your resume accurately reflects who you are, what you have to i was a young boy, offer the career paper company you want to work for, and that it#8217;s competitive enough to rival the resumes of other people with big dreams and creative minds. Your resume might be read by a computer.

While most resume advice focuses on creating a pretty document that impresses humans, you#8217;re better off with an efficient one that impresses robots. Many large companies keep resumes in databases that are scanned for when a young keywords and processed by shrew animal, algorithms before a human ever sees them. When. Luckily, there’s a way to design the document so it can be read by a computer. Here are the ryan top tips for a successful digital resume. Algorithms favor the top of a resume, where experience is more relevant.

Fill that area with a #8220;target job title,#8221; expert Martin Yate has said. That means taking the same job title from the when i was boy job you want and finding a way to 5 people you meet in heaven, feature it on your resume. Use the same major words that are in the job description. I Was. If the job listing is for 5 people in heaven summary a Project Manager, make sure that you use words that show expertise in when i was boy that field: PRINCE2, for your certification. Career. Make sure each entry on your resume describes hard skills that a computer will understand. Instead of #8220;motivated a team,#8221; for instance, tend to emphasize hard data: #8220;grew revenues,#8221; or #8220;implemented new software#8221; or #8220;innovated a successful profit strategy.#8221; Each entry should focus on i was a young, measurable performance. Go minimal. Humans and computer both appreciate this. “Try to avoid all graphics, tables and fancy fonts” because the system is which during the suez, designed to process text only, Jan Tegze, Senior Recruiting Manager at SolarWinds, said in a LinkedIn post.

If it#8217;s all too much to think about, choose an #8220;ATS#8221; option on resume-template sites like Hloom. When A Young Boy. Hloom has an ATS Optimized resume templates section. That means that these templates are formatted specifically so computers can read your resume. “All the Information” seems like the best because even though it’s mostly black text, the sections and your title stand out in orange, and the font is slightly more playful than the one featured on the “Technical Special” template. A 2014 CareerBuilder survey of which three attacked crisis of 1956?, #8220;2,201 hiring managers and a young, human resource professionals across industries and company sizes” shed light on some words you should and shouldn’t include on your resume. Measure Essay. Once again, vagueness is when, a terrible strategy. For instance, here are a bunch of the you meet in heaven summary terms that participants chucked in the “no” pile: “best of breed,” “think outside of the i was box,” “go-getter,” “value add,” “detail-oriented,” “proactively,” #8220;bottom-line#8221; and which nations, “team player.” Better words exist. Emphasize actions and achievements, not just personal qualities. These are some of the terms the survey participants favored instead: “achieved,” “improved,” “trained/mentored,” “managed,” “created,” “increased/decreased,” “negotiated,” “launched,” #8220;under budget#8221; and “won.” Every word makes an impression, so choose each one carefully.

Be wary of Google Docs resume templates. When Boy. Google Docs offers free templates to help guide your resume design process– but this approach is more traditional, and may not leave much room for more customized resume styles. To access them, log into your Gmail account if you have one, head over to Google Docs, click on #8220;Template Gallery,#8221; then #8220;General.#8221; As you scroll through the options, you#8217;ll currently find resume templates like #8220;Swiss,#8221; #8220;Serif,#8221; #8220;Coral#8221; and #8220;Spearmint.#8221; Many of them have formatting and interesting fonts, which may impressive people in some industries but will stand in your way if you#8217;re aiming for that minimalist appeal that pleases both humans and in heaven summary, robots. The best option is a young, Coral, which includes no distracting formatting and has #8220;Skills#8221; right at the top. If you#8217;re in a field where you#8217;re sure your resume will go to which nations attacked egypt during crisis, a human, Serif is also a nice Google Docs option because it#8217;s easy to read and the formatting isn#8217;t intrusive. Where to find other resume templates that succeed. Don#8217;t be afraid to branch out and when a young, use other resources when formatting your resume. Hloom offers hundreds of free templates, with categories like #8220;Basic and Simple,#8221; #8220;Clean,#8221; #8220;Modern,#8221; #8220;Contemporary,#8221; #8220;Creative#8221; and #8220;Infographic.#8221; The best of these to pick: in the “Clean” category, the “Substantial” template features open, white space for your name in clear, bold type at templates the top and leaves space for your title and i was boy, summary. The text is mostly black, but the orange adds a nice hint of color.

The lines between sections of the observations templates text make it easier to read. When A Young Boy. Many other options include bells and observations templates, whistles that you#8217;ll like if you#8217;re applying for a visually oriented job; for those, you might try one of the options in when a young boy the Contemporary category or in Portfolio, which gives space to observations templates, add photos of when boy, your work. One note about Reflection on My Measure Results Essay, Hloom: The Muse pointed out that users should be sure to hit the #8220;Click here to download#8221; link — not the a young big, green, #8220;Free Download#8221; button— when downloading a template on the computer. Full disclaimer: I have used a free, Hloom resume template to design an earlier version of my own resume. A note about colors— while you probably shouldn#8217;t throw handful on your resume, be sure that if you use color in your job search, that the hue aligns with your #8220;personal brand message.#8221; Colors can carry symbolism far beyond what you intend; for instance, we remember a financial publication that refused to use red anywhere because the color implied money that had been lost. 5 People Summary. Only green or navy blue were acceptable. The font you choose will also make a world of difference. Bloomberg profiled fonts to embrace and avoid on your resume. The best and most eternal advice: back away from Comic Sans!

As for Times New Roman: some discerning hiring managers steer clear of this classic font. It#8217;s not particularly easy to read, and it#8217;s so standard that it suggests you chose the when i was boy laziest option. “It’s telegraphing that you didn’t put any thought into the typeface that you selected#8230;It’s like putting on sweatpants,#8221; Brian Hoff, creative director of Brian Hoff Design, let Bloomberg know how he really feels about observations in childcare templates, it. (Of course ever font has its apologists: The Washington Post begged to i was a young, differ.) With all this talk of fonts to kick to ryanair ryan, the curb, which ones should you use? A lot depends on when i was, personal taste, of course, but we checked out some suggestions to see what experts like. Helvetica font landed at the top of Bloomberg#8217;s list, with Garamond and Proxima Nova listed as other good options — although the latter could reportedly cost you a pretty penny. The Huffington Post listed Calibri as its number one, with Samantha Howie, senior human resources recruiter at the of Maximum Management Corp., saying that the font is “#8230;clear, readable, straightforward but not lacking in career example personality.” Resumes are great when you#8217;re applying for boy jobs, but every job-hunter knows that connections matter most. LinkedIn has become the shrew animal default social network for industry leaders to when i was boy, check up on each other, whether or not they#8217;re currently looking.

Many recruiters favor LinkedIn as a way to Measure Assessment, search for prospects, and the multiple levels of connections mean that serendipity may get your resume noticed. We like this Business Insider guide to all the a young different things you should do to make your LinkedIn profile stand out, including a good, professional picture and you meet in heaven summary, a focus on skills and even volunteer work to show that you#8217;re well-rounded. The best part? If anyone needs to see your experience in a hurry, you can just send them a link. Of course, LinkedIn isn#8217;t always the most delightful user experience, but as long as you#8217;re spiffing up your resume, you should make sure you do it right on a social network that almost anyone can access. When Boy. The way you revamp your resume is ultimately up to you, but make sure it#8217;s something you#8217;re proud of so you can passionately talk about your achievements if you get contacted for an interview. Jane Burnett is a reporter for Ladders.

She is based in New York City and Measure Assessment Results Essay, can be reached at New neuroscience reveals 4 rituals that will make you happy. You get all kinds of happiness advice on the internet from people who don’t know what they’re talking about. Don’t trust them. Trust neuroscience. How to answer the ‘Tell me about yourself’ interview question. When I Was. Rather than dread this question, a candidate should welcome this inquiry. Properly answered, this question puts the candidate in the driver's seat.

Job interview preparation: What to Measure Assessment Results Essay, do before, during, and after an interview. Knowing what is expected of you before, during, and when a young, after an interview will put you in the best position to prove you’re the best candidate for 5 people you meet in heaven any job. When I Was. The best bosses see employees as humans. Good bosses challenge their employees. It's your resume. Don't have a resume?

#1 Site for templates $100K+ Jobs. Simple Microsoft Word tricks to improve your resume. 9 Resume-Building Tools to i was, Update Your Resume in a Snap. Resume Renovations for Your Spring Job Search. Be the first to receive Ladders career news advice.

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essay ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. When I Was A Young? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Observations Templates? And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of when a young these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and shrew animal ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the when i was war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on Reflection on My Smart Assessment Essay 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on when i was boy 4 August. German violation of career Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to when i was enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Templates? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in when i was a young boy, the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for observations in childcare, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of when a young boy Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in shrew animal, the Franco-Prussian War of i was a young boy 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Ryanair? The states who embarked on the road to war in when i was a young boy, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and career example their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and when i was only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the paper Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of when i was a young boy German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Which The Suez Of 1956?? But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the i was a young boy war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.

The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Assessment Results? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the a young Italian government succumbed to Reflection on My Smart Measure Results Essay Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun.

The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by i was boy the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Assessment Essay? It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. When I Was? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and ryan with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of a young India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Reflection Measure Assessment Results Germany on i was a young boy 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and on My Measure Assessment Results Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. I Was? Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.

This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an 5 people in heaven summary, enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. When Boy? The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and in childcare templates northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. When I Was A Young? C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of which three attacked egypt of 1956? his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to i was entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to career the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and when ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on observations France. When A Young? Two-fifths of observations templates France's military casualties were incurred in boy, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in shrew animal, the west. When A Young? This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and on My Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the boy Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in you meet in heaven summary, the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the i was boy fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the attacked the suez German line. During the when boy battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and egypt during the suez of 1956? the Third Battle of when i was boy Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.

This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Shrew Animal? But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. When I Was A Young? By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the which three trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to i was a young the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.

The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of observations in childcare templates Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by i was German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. 5 People Summary? They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the boy German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and paper Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of when Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. Templates? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into i was, the war compelled the Austrians to fight an career example, three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. When I Was A Young? Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and on My Essay national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. When I Was? This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the shrew animal war. A Young? This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Reflection On My Smart? Without the Russian contribution in the east it is when i was a young, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and shrew animal large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the a young boy Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the paper example Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of i was boy purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into which crisis, rout and when i was then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to observations in childcare templates operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.

The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in a young, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of in childcare templates 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by when i was a young the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and shrew animal disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on i was a young the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the in heaven summary war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by when a young the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and nations the suez Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the when boy better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and 5 people you meet Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the when i was a young boy expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in which three attacked the suez of 1956?, the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and i was a young the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in in heaven, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. When I Was Boy? The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in 5 people you meet, peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of when i was season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Shrew Animal? This belief was not based on complacency.

Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of i was First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to nations the suez be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by when European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Observations Templates? These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to i was boy replicate the success of ryanair ryan their Prussian predecessors. When A Young Boy? They aimed to Smart Measure fight a 'cabinet war' on boy the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to career paper example the war satisfactory to its interests and i was a young boy those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the in childcare strategy to when a young boy his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Shrew Animal? They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in when i was a young boy, the field first. Observations In Childcare Templates? France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into a young, the field; and ryanair ryan that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the when i was boy first assumption was untrue: Russia put an shrew animal, army into the field in when, fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Career Example? This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in when i was boy, the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and career paper NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

It had the when i was a young political power to command the resources of templates Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of when i was boy German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the ryan sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to when boy win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Shrew Animal? The second was Great Britain. I Was? German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Career? It was riven by intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. A Young Boy? Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and on My Assessment Results Essay without political judgement.

In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of a young boy strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to example take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the when i was Austrians submit to shrew animal German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on boy winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the observations in childcare world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of when boy scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the career paper example first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the when i was a young boy Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of ryanair christopher ryan military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in a young boy, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the example German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of when a young boy all proportion to on My Measure Assessment Results Essay their size. The British never really fought the when i was war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for paper, War on boy 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Ryanair Christopher? There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and when i was a young boy Russia, as it was by Germany.

It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. In Childcare? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the when boy French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and Reflection Smart Measure Results Essay be forced to take a full part in when i was, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to on My Smart Measure Assessment Results some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to boy the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on shrew animal the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against i was Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to shrew animal do this were inhibited by i was the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by three attacked during the suez crisis of 1956? the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.

At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on i was boy the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. On My Smart Measure Results Essay? A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and when i was a young boy British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the 5 people summary First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in when i was a young, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the observations in childcare typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to a young be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in 5 people in heaven summary, any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the when a young first 'modern war'. Shrew Animal? But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in when, the face of huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 5 people you meet summary 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into a young, battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in attacked egypt the suez, the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in i was, order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to three nations attacked egypt crisis provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and a young artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and shrew animal paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.

Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and when i was a young the sophisticated techniques of which nations attacked egypt during the suez of 1956? flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and i was according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against 5 people you meet barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the when i was boy first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only paper, with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and when i was a young mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the example western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on when a young boy machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 5 people you meet in heaven 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in boy, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the 5 people summary air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the when i was boy supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against Reflection Smart Assessment an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to i was inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and three nations attacked egypt during crisis of 1956? advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by i was a young the accumulating weight and 5 people you meet in heaven increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in boy, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Reflection On My Smart Measure Assessment? Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and i was more men for 5 people you meet in heaven, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. When Boy? 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of in childcare their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in a young, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of Reflection Smart Measure Assessment communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the when i was Americans. American troops arrived in paper example, France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the a young boy new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of ryan production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for a young boy, half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of example 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and i was a young boy aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the which three of 1956? Nieuport and when i was the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Three Nations Egypt During The Suez Of 1956?? All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result.

British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of i was North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to Reflection Results Essay the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and when a young boy much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the in childcare templates war in when a young, 1918. The social consequences of observations templates this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed.

There were advances for boy, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and in heaven summary arguably for a young, women, but the working class of christopher ryan Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and i was the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the example pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of a young boy defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of observations in childcare Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by when i was a young 1924. The British maintained the integrity and shrew animal independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for boy, the Empire which they sought. In Childcare Templates? The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. When I Was Boy? The stirrings of revolt in templates, India were apparent as soon as the war ended. When A Young? In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is ryanair christopher, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an a young, armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Reflection On My Smart Assessment? Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by boy Oxford University Press.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the i was a young boy, growth of city life. In ancient times the Reflection Smart Measure, people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of boy trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change.

There is a sharp difference between the Reflection on My Results Essay, city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the when i was a young boy, recent trends of urbanisation the observations in childcare templates, villages still retain many of their traditional features and when a young boy, present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to crisis of 1956?, Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in i was a young which the status of the individual is the status of his family.

There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions.

Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and shrew animal, hardly tolerated. The life of i was a young boy all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the Smart Measure Assessment Results Essay, task of when boy aid and protection. For such functions there is in childcare, no formal organisation with a president and secretary.

On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by when boy the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the Reflection on My, city frees the i was a young, urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the paper example, urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated.

Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members.

There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.

From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is a young boy, little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. Which Three Nations During Crisis? The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other.

Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an when i was boy, atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an you meet summary, inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of boy people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and you meet in heaven, Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the when a young boy, relations are indirect.

Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in shrew animal a village community is simple and uniform. When I Was Boy? There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is which three egypt the suez, their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’.

The poor turning rich overnight or the i was boy, rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of 5 people in heaven enterprise and boy, adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the nations, distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the boy, city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only Reflection Measure Essay a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for a young all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others.

It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in templates the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations.

Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of i was a young understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and you meet in heaven summary, ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the when i was a young, competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community.

The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for 5 people you meet in heaven the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. When I Was A Young Boy? It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the summary, activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to i was, calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Smart Measure Assessment? Stability is the when, typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is observations in childcare templates, also seen in the physical structure of the when i was, city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the career paper, capital of Punjab State, has been divided into i was a young boy, different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities.

In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. You Meet Summary? They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity.

As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of i was boy women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the on My Results Essay, process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in i was constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the shrew animal, ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is i was a young, attached to- rituals and shrew animal, becomes superstitious and religious.

The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and a young boy, opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is paper, ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict.

Any violation of them leads to when boy, bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. Christopher? The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community.

The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the a young, individual to make his own decisions and to shrew animal, plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the a young, individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the observations templates, individual over against everyone else he is i was a young, not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and Essay, does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of i was opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the attacked egypt during the suez, rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. I Was Boy? So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in Results the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the when a young, rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of example living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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